Horayot 5 - Who Brings the Bull for the "Sin of Forgetfulness"

If one of the court members realized that they have erred and dissented, or if the most distinguished member of the court was not present, or if one of the judges was disqualified for the court, such as a convert or an elder who is unfit to father children - they don't bring a bull offering. If the court ruled incorrectly on purpose, and not by mistake, then each individual who transgressed brings his own sin offering, an ewe or a she-goat.

How many bulls are brought? There are multiple opinions about it: some say that the court brings the offering, and some - that the congregation of people does it. Furthermore, each tribe is called a congregation, so there are opinions that each tribe brings an offering, some tribes bring it, and even that all tribes bring it if one tribe sinned. Some opinions require the court of a single tribe to bring an offering, but the Sages say that liability exists only for the error of the Great Sanhedrin of seventy one, which was located on the Temple Mount, in the Chamber of Hewn Stones.

Art: Paulus Potter - Young Bull 1647